Introduction Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study.
Selection of the Research Paradigm and Methodology Dr. In doing so, it deals with educational questions that can be investigated in a satisfactory manner, and the methods which enable such satisfactory investigation and the utility of results emanating from such investigation Dash, Since theoretical questions in education emerge from different conceptions and interpretations of social reality, different paradigms have been evolved to determine the criteria according to which one would select and define problems for inquiry.
During the past century, different paradigms have taken Research paradigm examples due to the remarkable growth in social sciences research.
There are mainly two paradigms to the verification of theoretical propositions, i. Positivism The positivist paradigm of exploring social reality is based on the philosophical ideas of the French philosopher August Comte, who emphasized observation and reason as means of understanding human behaviour.
According to him, true knowledge is based on experience of senses and can be obtained by observation and experiment.
Positivistic thinkers adopt his scientific method as a means of knowledge generation. Hence, it has to be understood within the framework of the principles and assumptions of Research paradigm examples. These assumptions, as Conen et al noted, are determinism, empiricism, parsimony, and generality.
With these assumptions of science, the ultimate goal of science is to integrate and systematise findings into a meaningful pattern or theory which is regarded as tentative and not the ultimate truth. Theory is subject to revision or modification as new evidence is found.
Positivistic paradigm thus systematizes the knowledge generation process with the help of quantification, which is essential y to enhance precision in the description of parameters and the discernment of the relationship among them.
The examples of positivist paradigm and quantitative approach are provided in Table 1 at the end. Although positivistic paradigm continued to influence educational research for a long time in the later half of the twentieth century, it was criticized due to its lack of regard for the subjective states of individuals.
It regards human behaviour as passive, controlled and determined by external environment. Hence human beings are dehumanized without their intention, individualism and freedom taken into account in viewing and interpreting social reality.
According to the critics of this paradigm, objectivity needs to be replaced by subjectivity in the process of scientific inquiry. This gave rise to anti-positivism or naturalistic inquiry.
Anti-positivism Anti-positivism emphasizes that social reality is viewed and interpreted by the individual herself according to the ideological positions she possesses. Therefore, knowledge is person all y experienced rather than acquired from or imposed from outside.
The anti-positivists believe that reality is multi-layered and complex Cohen et al, and a single phenomenon is having multiple interpretations. They emphasize that the verification of a phenomenon is adopted when the level of understanding of a phenomenon is such that the concern is to probe into the various unexplored dimensions of a phenomenon rather than establishing specific relationship among the components, as it happens in the case of positivism.
Anti-positivism is marked by three schools of thought in the social science research. These are phenomenology, ethnomethodology and symbolicinteractionism. All the three schools of thought emphasise human interaction with phenomena in their daily lives, and suggest qualitative rather than quantitative approach to social inquiry.
It rules out any kind of objective external reality. Husserl and Schutz are the main proponents of this school of thought. During interaction with various phenomena, human beings interpret them and attach meanings to different actions and or ideas and thereby construct new experiences.
Therefore, the researcher has to develop empathic understanding to know the process of interpretation by individuals so that she can reproduce in her mind feelings, motives and thoughts that are behind the action of others.
It deals with the world of everyday life. According to enthomethodologists, theoretical concerns centres around the process by which common sense reality is constructed in everyday face-to-face interaction.
They are mainly interested in the interpretation people use to make sense of social settings. It basic all y emphasizes the understanding and interpretation of interactions that take place between human beings. Human interaction in the social world is mediated by the use of symbols like language, which help human beings to give meaning to objects.
As a result, not only human beings change themselves through interaction, but also bring in change in societies. The two paradigms presented here are concerned with two concepts of social reality. While positivism stands for objectivity, measurability, predictability, controllability and constructs laws and rules of human behaviour, non-positivism essenti all y emphasizes understanding and interpretation of phenomena and making meaning out of this process.
Alongside the presence of these two major paradigms, another trend, which got developed during the post-sixties, gave rise to the third paradigm of research namely the Paradigm of Critical Theory.Age of the earth evidences for a young age of the earth and the universe.
by Don Batten. Published: 4 June , last updated 13 September There are many categories of evidence for the age of the earth and the cosmos that indicate they are much younger than is generally asserted today.
Leading Edge International Research Group Home Page. Planetary and Social Paradigm Analysis and Discussion. In science and philosophy, a paradigm (/ ˈ p ær ə d aɪ m /) is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
[ Contents Vol 16] [ IIER Home] Research dilemmas: Paradigms, methods and methodology Noella Mackenzie and Sally Knipe Charles Sturt University In this article the authors discuss issues faced by early career researchers, including the dichotomy, which many research textbooks and journal articles create and perpetuate between qualitative and quantitative research methodology despite.
Fire is Everyone's Fight. Home fires occur every 90 seconds and take more lives than earthquakes, hurricanes, and tornadoes combined. A paradigm is a “worldview” or a set of assumptions about how things work. of color, and people who are often marginalized in society) Provide information that can be used for social change.
Examples of research often used for social change: Feminist research (assumes women are oppressed in society – research is to be used to help.