Under the Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme, eligible small-scale renewable energy systems may be entitled to small-scale technology certificates, which can be sold to recoup a portion of the cost of purchasing and installing the system. Small-scale renewable energy systems are categorised into small generation units and hot water systems.
The synthetic organic chemical industry began in when English chemist William Henry Perkin prepared the dye mauve from coal-tar chemicals. Perkin built a factory near London to supply the world's first synthetic dye.
Synthetic versions of alizarin and indigo, dyes previously derived from plants, followed. Although England had the early lead, Germany soon became the leading global supplier of a rainbow of brilliant colors.
Dye manufacturing in the United States was hampered by a lack of industrial chemists, limited availability of intermediates derived from coal-tar, and tariff regulations that favored imports.
The first efforts are attributed to European chemists who setup rudimentary facilities in the Green Point area of Brooklyn, along the Newtown Creek. In the early s, Dr. Partz, a German chemist, attempted to manufacture magenta in a small wood building on the banks of Newtown Creek.
The venture failed but in Thomas and Charles Holliday, sons of Read Holliday, who began making dyes in Huddersfield, England incame to the U.
The Holliday plant produced the first aniline in the country, in addition to nitrobenzene, picric acid and a range of dyes. Three larger scale companies soon followed. Bott, a cardboard manufacturer.
Bayer became financially involved with this company in order to manufacture magenta in the U. By the time World War I erupted inthere were still only a handful of U. But the German dye factories now had to switch to making explosives and Britain blockaded German shipping, cutting off imports.
This resulted in a dye famine that quickly drove prices up. Dye manufacture suddenly became an attractive investment. Beckers, a German chemist, had started a small dye works in the Flatbush section of Brooklyn.
This plant was wrecked by an explosion in that killed two chemists. The strong demand for dyes, along with financial aid from capitalist Eugene Meyer, Jr. Beckers became one of the wealthiest industrialists of the era and retired in to a palatial estate in Lake George, New York.
But pollution from the Brooklyn plant contributed to the end of oyster harvesting in Jamaica Bay. This was an early warning sign of the environmental problems that would taint the dye industry and erode public support.
Initially Calco manufactured coal-tar intermediates. After the company also produced synthetic dyes. Calco was acquired by American Cyanamid in and the Bound Brook site became a leading manufacturer of dyestuffs, sulfa drugs and resins. The initial product line consisted of sulfur dyes, alizarin dyes and intermediates.
The plant became the largest producer of vat dyes in the U. Org discusses many other dye and pigment companies that were established around the time of World War I. Other companies were absorbed by large domestic or international firms.
The emerging dye industry had significant impact on the development of the chemical industry in the U. Dye chemistry was the foundation for pharmaceuticals, fibers, plastics and many other products.SCALE is a comprehensive modeling and simulation suite for nuclear safety analysis and design developed and maintained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract with the U.S.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Department of Energy, and the National Nuclear Security Administration to perform reactor physics, criticality safety, radiation .
The Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme creates a financial incentive for individuals and small businesses to install eligible small-scale renewable energy systems such as solar panel systems, small-scale wind systems, small-scale hydro systems, solar water heaters and air source heat pumps.
The Economic History of the International Film Industry. Gerben Bakker, University of Essex Introduction. Like other major innovations such as the automobile, electricity, chemicals and the airplane, cinema emerged in most Western countries at the same time.
arteensevilla.com The Romance of Steel A History of the Steel Industry by Herbert Newton Casson THE BIRTH OF THE BESSEMER PROCESS.
On that bleak November day when Andrew Carnegie was born in a Scottish cottage, the iron and steel makers of America had no more thought of millions than of castles in Spain.
Steel sold for twenty . History of the synthetic dye industry in Europe and the United States. A landmark pilot project will help small-scale miners in Geita’s gold-mining region work together with large-scale mining companies in a healthy, safe environment, increasing their income and improving economic growth in the country.