The diagnosis of cancer strikes absolute terror into the heart of the patient. The great fear is the result of the utter failure of professional medicine to secure a reasonable degree of success in the prevention and treatment of cancer. We have been promised for the last 50 years that the cure for cancer is just around the corner. All we need to do is spend a little more money on research.
Age-incidence curves for breast cancer in African-American and Caucasian-American women. It has been reported that the crossover in breast cancer age incidence between African-American and Caucasian-American women is a relatively recent phenomenon that evolved over the s [ 7 ].
A sudden shift in age distribution is difficult to explain, making the accuracy of this observation dubious. The SEER program is the most well-established and comprehensive registry of population-based cancer data in the U. One could easily speculate that research regarding the cancer burden among African Americans was inadequately documented during the first half of the twentieth century.
A plausible and interesting explanation for the younger age distribution of African-American breast cancer patients has been proposed by Pathak et al.
Those investigators correlated the short-term increase in breast cancer risk that occurs in the postpartum period with premenopausal breast cancer risk.
They hypothesized that the higher prevalence of early childbearing that is observed among African-American compared with Caucasian-American women thereby accounts for the higher incidence of early-onset breast cancer.
Those investigators demonstrated a dual effect of pregnancy on breast cancer risk: Postmenopausal obesity is an established risk factor for breast cancer [ 10 ] because of the higher circulating estrogen levels that result from fatty tissue metabolism of adrenal gland steroids in the absence of ovarian function.
However, as noted previously, breast cancer incidence rates are significantly lower for African-American women in the postmenopausal age range. The extent to which dietary fat contributes to breast cancer incidence among African-American women is unclear at present.
Other NHANES findings have implicated physical inactivity and inadequate intake of micronutrients, as well as other dietary components, as factors contributing to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk among African-American women [ 12 ]. It is therefore appropriate to compare patterns of the disease among African Americans with data regarding the epidemiology of breast cancer among native African women.
Unfortunately, there is a paucity of population-based data regarding breast cancer incidence and mortality in Africa, a large continent comprised of many diverse nations. Nonetheless, available data reveal several provocative parallels between African-American and native African breast cancer patients.
Overall, breast cancer is a relatively unusual malignancy in African countries. Several investigators have documented a younger age distribution and a greater prevalence of high-grade, estrogen-receptor-negative disease among breast cancer patients in the Ghanaian and Nigerian populations of western Africa [ 13 — 16 ], similar to the patterns of breast cancer reported among African-American women.
Western African populations served as the source for most of the slave trade to colonial North America, and therefore share a common ancestry with present-generation African Americans.
These parallels suggest the possible contribution of founder effects. Since that time, however, several BRCA-related breast cancers in African-American women have been identified [ 18 — 22 ], and these studies are reviewed comprehensively by Olopade et al.
Germline mutations in the BRCA genes that are specifically associated with high-risk but unrelated African-American kindreds have also been identified [ 182123 ], and it is possible that additional African-associated founder mutations in other breast cancer susceptibility genes will be identified in the future.
While population-based studies regarding the prevalence of mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes are under way, no definitive data are available at present. Several reports have demonstrated that African-American women tend to underutilize genetic counseling services [ 24 — 26 ], and Matthews et al.
Currently available data on genetic predisposition to breast cancer among African Americans are inadequate for drawing any conclusions regarding whether ethnicity-specific guidelines are warranted for identifying members of mutation-carrying kindreds.
African-American families appearing to be at high risk for harboring a BRCA mutation require complete gene sequencing. Several investigators have confirmed an association between circulating levels of sex hormones and breast cancer risk [ 27 — 31 ].
Ethnicity-related variation in levels of endogenous hormones [ 3233 ] has also been reported, and this issue warrants further study. Bone density is one surrogate marker of estrogen levels, and it has been associated with a higher breast cancer risk.
African-American women tend to be less susceptible to osteoporosis, and greater radial bone density has been correlated with breast cancer risk among African-American women by Nelson et al. Studies thus far provide opportunities for speculation, but they fail to offer a clear picture of how hormone levels might account for the unique epidemiology of breast cancer in African-American women.
These patterns persist even after controlling for stage and age, as demonstrated in studies by Newman et al. Furthermore, as biomedical research and genotyping tools develop further, contemporary studies are identifying other provocative characteristics that appear to be specific to African-American breast cancer patients.Breast cancer: More than epidemiologic studies have looked at the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer in women.
These studies have consistently found an increased risk of breast cancer associated with . Comparative analysis of clinicopathologic features, treatment, and survival of Asian women with a breast cancer diagnosis residing in the United States Min Yi MD, PhD 1,2,†,*, Peijun Liu MD, PhD 1.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. 1 Metastatic breast cancer remains an incurable disease but is treatable by means of. We obtained information about prerandomisation tumour characteristics, clinical tumour response, surgery, recurrence, and mortality for women in ten randomised trials in early breast cancer that began before and compared NACT with the same chemotherapy given postoperatively.
Cancer Treatment Centers of America (CTCA), headquartered in Boca Raton, Florida, is a national, for-profit network of five comprehensive cancer care and research centers and three out patient care centers that serves cancer patients throughout the United arteensevilla.com follows an integrative approach to cancer care that uses conventional approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and.
Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women, and the second main cause of cancer death in women, after lung cancer.
Among US women in , there will be an estimated , new cases of invasive breast cancer, 63, new cases of breast carcinoma in situ, and 40, breast cancer deaths. While breast cancer incidence rates are highest in non-Hispanic white women, breast cancer . Screening for Cervical and Breast Cancer Among Women, by Demographic Characteristics and Access to Care, National Health Interview Survey, United States, Characteristic Cervical Cancer, Papanicolaou Test Within Past 3 years. Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. 1 Metastatic breast cancer remains an incurable disease but is treatable by means of.
Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates.